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Helps you remember the facts found in Christ and the Americas!

Christ and the Americas Workbook
and Study Guide
— With Answer Key —

I want to thank my son Jarred for all the help he gave me in preparing the manuscripts for both of the workbooks that accompany Anne Carroll’s texts. For Christ the King, Lord of History—Workbook and Study Guide, he assisted me in typing the chapters by hand, using a dictaphone at the age of 12. This typing was by far the hardest part of the work. For Christ and the Americas—Workbook and Study Guide, he assisted me with the editing of all the chapters, typing the corrections for me and pointing out errors. Also, I thank him for giving me the time to sit and do the work necessary for each chapter by caring for the younger children and keeping the house running when I was busy writing. Without Jarred’s help, these two workbooks could not have been completed. I thank God for blessing me with such a wonderful son and for the gift of home schooling him and my other children.

A Message to the Student
Welcome to this Workbook for Christ and the Americas. This Workbook was designed to help you make good use of Anne Carroll’s textbook, Christ and the Americas, which is an excellent text for understanding the basics of U.S. and Central and South American history from a Catholic perspective. If possible, it is preferable to have completed the other text, Christ the King—Lord of History, before moving on to Christ and the Americas. World history sets American history in proper perspective. Because so much of what you have read in world history will come into play now in American history, be sure to coordinate the time periods/chapters in Christ and the Americas with specific chapters of Christ the King—Lord of History. By taking just a moment to review the Christ the King—Lord of History chapters that correspond to chapters in Christ and the Americas, you will greatly refresh your memory and have a better set-up for these chapters. Just like Christ the King—Lord of History, Christ and the Americas is not a text to simply read through and then expect yourself to remember. Without some sort of reinforcement, the material will simply become a blur in your mind. In order to remember the information and to see how the history of the world is intimately linked with that of the Catholic Church, you have to continue to work through the material and have it presented in different formats. I have created this Workbook for Christ and the Americas to help you go over the material. This Workbook covers almost every major topic from the text.

Whether you are an adult working independently to learn history or a student in a Catholic school or homeschool, I recommend that you use the Workbook as a guide before you go through each chapter, to assist yourself in focusing on the most important elements. Then answer the questions once you have finished reading the chapter. Later, you can use the Workbook, with the answers filled in, as a review. In that scenario, you are studying the material in-depth three times besides reading the chapter! You could also use the questions in the text at the end of each chapter as a test.

Study Tips
When you read Christ and the Americas, take the initiative in learning and remembering the material! Take notes as you read through the text. Brief notes in the form of words, phrases and dates can be so useful and will not stop your progress in reading the chapter (the way copying a whole sentence would). For more complicated material, it is highly recommended that you make yourself timelines and charts to organize it for clearer understanding and better retention. Charts help to detail and group information in a way that is more understandable and more easily accessible. Do not rush through the material. Read the chapter, complete the Workbook on that chapter, do selected projects and extra reading—completely mastering the material before moving on to the next chapter. Compose a short summary of the chapter (orally or in writing) to help you solidify the concepts. There are 26 chapters, which could be completed in 1 to 11/2 weeks each, with longer time periods for larger chapters. Or, Christ and the Americas could be used for a two-year course, as recommended by Mrs. Carroll.

I highly recommend that you make two lists for yourself after finishing each chapter—one list called “Notes from this Chapter” and the other called “Questions/possible research areas from this Chapter.” You could keep these lists in a notebook, or you could write them out in the blank space at the end of the chapters in this Workbook. These lists will help you to master the material in each chapter, to think it through and to “make it your own.” You will note that chapters 12, 17, 21 and 25 all relate to Latin American history and therefore go together. If it helps, you may want to read these in chronological order to make more sense of the sequence of history in Latin America. At the very least, review chapter 12 again before starting on 17.

The Catholic Meaning of History
Remember, the more times you see the information in different forms, the better you will retain it and the more clearly you will understand history. Eventually you will feel as though you are on a road with a clear sense of your direction, knowing and understanding what is to the north, south, east and west. You will see clearly what happened before you in history and how that is affecting what is happening now. You will understand how we got to where we are today. You will see how God has worked through so many individuals and how people have affected history because of their cooperation or lack of cooperation with His Will.

Especially in Christ and the Americas, you will see how the Holy Catholic Church has survived despite bad decisions by government officials, lack of support from supposedly Christian nations and persecution from Communists. You will see how Our Lord’s promise that “the gates of hell shall not prevail” against His Church are being fulfilled. I hope that my efforts to make Mrs. Carroll’s text more useful to you will help you to truly be all that God wants you to be for the Church. May God make clear to you, through the gifts of the Holy Spirit (especially Knowledge, Wisdom and Understanding), the history of His world and Church that you are about to study. I will be praying for you and I ask your prayers for me. God bless you.
—Mrs. Belinda T. Mooney

A Message to the Student
Timeline of Major Events in the History of the Americas
1. The New World Meets the Old
2. Two Heroes: Cortés and Magellan
3. Missionaries and Conquistadors
4. Bringing Christ to the New World
5. France in the New World
6. From England to America
7. The Eve of American War for Independence
8. The United States’ War for Independence
9. The Birth of the American Government
10. Catholics in the New Nation
11. The French Revolution and the New World
12. Spain Is Driven from Latin America
13. Manifest Destiny
14. No Irish Need Apply
15. The Coming of the Civil War
16. The Civil War
17. Traditionalists in Latin America
18. The United States in the Gilded Age
19. The Age of Theodore Roosevelt
20. Woodrow Wilson and the First World War
21. Viva Cristo Rey!
22. Boom, Depression and the New Deal
23. The United States in World War II
24. The Birth and Death of Anti-Communism
25. Communists vs. Christians in Latin America
26. The Moral Decline of America
Answer Key

Timeline of Major Events in the History of the Americas

B.C. 1000 Olmecs begin human sacrifices (approximate date).
A.D. 1200 The Inca Empire established (approximate date).
1450 The Aztec tribe becomes powerful. Tlacaellel mandates human sacrifice on a large scale (approximate date).
1492 Columbus discovers the New World.
1513 Balboa becomes the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
1521 Cortés conquers the last Aztec emperor, ending human sacrifice and devil worship.
1521 Magellan accomplishes the first circumnavigation of the world.
1531 Our Lady of Guadalupe appears to Juan Diego in what is now Mexico.
1531-1548 9 million Indians in Mexico become Catholics. During the same time period, approximately the same number of Catholics are lost to Protestantism in Europe.
1553 Father (now Blessed) Anchieta begins work in Brazil.
1575 St. Turibius is appointed Archbishop of Lima in Peru. His work of evangelizing Peru is spiritually assisted by four Saints (St. Martin de Porres, St. Rose of Lima, St. Francis Solano and St. John
1598 Spanish missionary activity pushes north to New Mexico.
1646 St. Isaac Jogues is martyred: one of the 8 Jesuit Martyrs of North America.
1763 French and Indian War ends.
1768-1784 Fr. Junipero Serra evangelizes California.
1773 The Boston Tea Party
1774 The Intolerable Acts and First Continental Congress
1775-1782 U.S. War for Independence
1776 U.S. Declaration of Independence
1789 George Washington becomes President, as the French Revolution rages in France.
1789 Fr. John Carroll is appointed to become the first bishop in the U.S.
1791 Adoption of the Bill of Rights
1793 First ordination of a Catholic priest on U.S. soil (by Bishop John Carroll).
1803 The Louisiana Purchase doubles the size of the U.S.
1809 St. Elizabeth Ann Seton founds the Sisters of Charity, the first American religious order.
1812 The War of 1812
1820 John England becomes the first Bishop of Charleston; later establishes the first Catholic newspaper.
1846-1848 The Mexican War
1836-1860 St. John Neumann ministers in America, especially in Philadelphia.
1861-1865 U.S. Civil War
1867 Emperor Maximilian is executed in Mexico, marking the real beginning of the Revolution in Mexico.
1874 Garcia Moreno is assassinated by revolutionaries after working to restore Ecuador’s Catholic heritage. Radical liberals come to power in Ecuador in 1895.
1898 Spanish-American War
1910 The Revolution in Mexico—its “formal” beginning
1917 Our Lady of Fatima appears; the Russian Revolution takes place.
1914-1918 World War I, which the U.S. enters in 1917. As a result of the War, and largely through President Woodrow Wilson, Communism under Stalin gains control over many Catholic nations in eastern Europe.
1927 Bl. Miguel Pro’s martyrdom in Mexico proclaiming Viva Cristo Rey!
1929-1939 The Great Depression (approximate dates), with the Stock Market Crash taking place in 1929.
1933-1945 Franklin Roosevelt’s terms as President. The New Deal programs fight the Depression and give the federal government much control over American life.
1939-1945 World War II, which the U.S. enters at the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941; ends with atom bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by U.S.
1945 Founding of the United Nations
1949 The People’s Republic of China (Red China) is set up, ruled by the Communist Mao Tse-tung.
1950-1953 Korean War
1952-present Moral decline in America, assisted by the Warren Court, liberals in universities, etc.
1956 Hungarian Freedom Fighters die as U.S. denies them aid; Hungary falls to Communism.
1959 Fidel Castro takes control of Cuba on January 1.
1962-1965 Vatican Council II; Liberals seize the opportunity to spread Liberal ideas as “the spirit of Vatican II.”
1965-1973 War in Vietnam; Vietnam falls to Communism in 1975.
1968 Humanae Vitae (papal encyclical) reaffirms the intrinsic immorality of contraception.
1973 Roe v. Wade declares all laws prohibiting abortion to be unconstitutional; abortion takes the lives of 11/2 million U.S. babies per year by the mid-1980s.


Perfect Score: 100 Score: __________________
Directions: Complete and make each statement true and accurate by writing one or more words on each blank line.

1. The change in human life by which men began to grow their own crops and raise animals rather than only hunting and gathering food occurred in the New World around 2500 B.C. and is called the ________________________ Revolution. This contrasts with the Old World’s achievement of this change around 9000 B.C.
2. After the overthrow of Quetzalcoatl, human sacrifice returned and the society of the Toltec people became ________________________ , with the individual person being of little importance.
3. The Aztecs’ chief gods were the Hummingbird Wizard and Tezcatlipoca, and their religious symbol was the ________________________ .
4. Tlacaellel was so immoral and bloodthirsty that at the mass murder dedicating a new temple to the Aztec ________________________ gods, he ordered and watched 80,000 men be killed in four days.
5. Inca rule under Pachacuti and his son Topa Inca extended over the immense area from northern Ecuador to central ________________________ , an area of over 350,000 square miles.
6. The island of Samana City in the Bahamas was probably the first island Christopher Columbus reached; after thanking God and claiming the land for Spain, he named the island ________________________ , which means Holy Saviour.
7. Columbus made a total of ________________________ voyages from Spain to the New World between the years of 1492 and 1504. He died two years later, not having reached the Indies, but having opened up the West to the Catholic culture of Europe.
(Each Question is worth 2 points.)
Pages 1-18

8. At this time period, the strength of the Catholic Faith in Europe was most evident in Spain, which was ruled by ________________________ and ________________________ , who were known as los Reyes Católicos—“the Catholic Kings.”
9. The Spaniards who colonized the New World in South and Central America built a ________________________ society continuing to this day and influencing even the U.S.A. in the names of cities such as San Francisco, San Antonio and Santa Fe.
10. After Pedro Cabral’s discovery of ________________________ in 1500, Portugal regularly sent ships to the New World to continue to explore.
11. The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) gave Spain the right to explore west of the imaginary Line of ________________________ , an area consisting of most of North and South America, while Portugal was allowed the eastern part of South America.
12. In his remarkable exploration of the continental United States, while searching for the alleged “Fountain of Youth,” the Spaniard Juan Ponce de Leon discovered the Gulf Stream and land which is now the state of ________________________ , becoming the first white man to explore what is now the continental U.S.A.
13. ________________________ was the Caribbean island which Diego Velazquez colonized in 1511. This was the base from which expeditions to Mexico were later sent.
14. ________________________ is the man whose name was given to the new continents, even though he lied about making a voyage there in 1497 and was not one of the first Europeans in the New World, as he claimed.

Multiple Choice
Directions: After each statement below, there is a set of words or phrases. Circle the letter next to the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

1. The staple crop around which life revolved in the New World was not known in the
Old World. It was:
a) wheat
b) corn
c) potatoes
d) sweet potatoes
e) none of the above

2. All of the following were part of the Mayan civilization, except:
a) abolition of human sacrifice
b) advanced mathematics
c) excellent astronomy
d) development in irrigation

3. According to a prophecy, Quetzalcoatl would return in the year:
a) 2-Reed
b) 3-Reed
c) 1496
d) none of the above

4. The Inca culture of Peru included:
a) written communication
b) a highly developed governmental system
c) beautiful architecture
d) b and c only
e) a, b and c

5. The highly organized society of the Incas, in which individuals existed to serve the
government, was structured as a:
a) circle
b) pyramid
c) hexagon
d) triangle

6. The first known European colonies in the New World were those of:
a) St. Brendan the Voyager
b) Christopher Columbus
c) the Vikings
d) the Phoenicians

7. The ship of Columbus that ran aground on a coral reef was the:
a) Niña
b) Pinta
c) Santa María
d) none of the above

8. Portugal’s Prince Henry, who wanted to find a new route to the Indies and further
the Kingdom of God, financed many voyages down the African coast, giving his
men his vision and courage, until finally in 1498 they were successful. He was
known as:
a) The Navigator
b) The Voyager
c) The Sailor
d) The Zealous

9. To follow up on earlier discoveries, Portugal sent three ships to Brazil in 1501
under the command of:
a) Amerigo Vespucci
b) Gonáclo Coelho
c) Pedro Cabral
d) none of the above

10. The leader of the second Spanish expedition into Mexico, during which the
Spaniards first realized that the Aztecs practiced human sacrifice, was:
a) Hernan Cortés
b) Diego Velazquez
c) Vasco da Gama
d) Juan Grijalba

Directions: Circle the letter T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false.

1. T F The New World was not far behind the Old World in beginning to grow crops and raise animals.
2. T F The Aztecs were the first civilization to offer human sacrifices.
3. T F The difference between a civilization and barbarism is the presence of cities and the ability to write; the Mayan civilization in Central America and southern Mexico was the first civilization.
4. T F The eighteen-month year that the Mayans developed is slightly more accurate than our present-day calendar.
5. T F Montezuma I was the most powerful man in the Aztec Empire during his reign, effectively ruling the Aztecs for 67 years.
6. T F The first white child to be born in the New World was born to Thorfinn and Gudrid Karlsefni, Vikings who attempted to form a colony on the northern tip of Newfoundland.
7. T F Christopher Columbus was born in Portugal in 1451.
8. T F Queen Isabel wrote a letter in Spanish to the King of China—to be delivered through Christopher Columbus, even though she was not sure the King would be able to read it.
9. T F The second voyage of Christopher Columbus, in 1493, resulted in the discovery of Venezuela.
10. T F Columbus was primarily motivated to bring Christ to people who did not know Him, for the glory of God.
11. T F The third voyage of Columbus, in 1498, was to Cuba; this was his first continental landfall in the New World.
12. T F Columbus was as good an administrator as he was a navigator. Due to his good administration of the colonies, Isabel was very pleased with Columbus, especially with his treatment of the Indians.
13. T F Columbus’ fourth voyage, from 1502 to 1504, was spent primarily in ensuring correct administration of the colonies.

Directions: This list is made up of names of persons, groups, places and things. Each one corresponds to one of the lettered phrases below. In each blank, write the letter of the phrase that correctly identifies that person, group, place or thing.

A) Spanish port near Seville from which Columbus sailed on his first voyage (September, 1492)
B) Irish Saint; reached Newfoundland in a leather boat in the 6th century
C) first European (a Spaniard) to see the Pacific Ocean
D) Toltec leader who abolished human sacrifice and reformed religion for a time
E) first man to reach India in 1498 by an all-water route around Africa
F) established colony in Greenland in 985
G) one of the greatest Inca emperors; ruled in 1438
H) oldest village sites in the New World (dating from around 2000 B.C.)
I) Isabel’s grandson; defended the Church against Protestants and Moslems
J) warrior Aztec ruler for 67 years—oversaw the sacrifice of over 50,000 humans per year
K) King of Portugal; married to Maria (Isabel’s daughter); authorized Cabral’s journey
L) Irishman who duplicated St. Brendan’s voyage in the 1970s
M) first Viking to reach a continental landfall (at Newfoundland)

1. ___ Central America
2. ___ Quetzalcoatl
3. ___ Tlacaellel
4. ___ Pachacuti
5. ___ St. Brendan (The Voyager)
6. ___ Tim Severin
7. ___ Eric The Red
8. ___ Bjarni Herolffson
9. ___ Palos
10. ___ Charles I
11. ___ Vasco da Gama
12. ___ Manuel
13. ___ Vasco Nuñez de Balboa

Mini-Essay Question: Describe two key aspects of the inherently unjust Aztec (Extra credit—4 points.) society as described in the text.
Personal Opinion: Name an important or interesting fact that you learned in this chapter. How could this fact affect your life?

Supplemental Reading
William Thomas Walsh. Isabella of Spain: The Last Crusader. TAN. Warren H. Carroll. Isabel of Spain: The Catholic Queen. Christendom Press, Front
Royal, Virginia.


Perfect Score: 100 Score: __________________

Directions: Complete and make each statement true and accurate by writing one or more words on each blank line.

1. Although his 300 Spaniards faced an empire of ________________________ Aztecs, Cortés was determined to succeed, stating that the greater were the obstacles, the greater would be the glory.
2. Cortés’ banners bore these words: “Brothers and companions, let us follow the sign of the Cross with true ________________________ , and in it we shall conquer.”
3. Cortés’ first request for supplies was not for crossbows or muskets, but for ________________________ and altar wine.
4. The sacrifice of humans was so widespread that one of Montezuma’s buildings near the temple at Tenochtitlán was constructed of mortar and
________________________ .
5. Panfilo Narvaez’s intention to march against Cortés in April of 1520 was motivated primarily by ________________________ for the gold of the Aztecs. His action had grave consequences: while Cortés was putting down Narvaez’s revolt, the Aztecs besieged his men.
6. On the “Night of ________________________ ,” along with most of their horses, half of the Spaniards were killed when the Aztec warriors attacked as the
Spaniards tried to leave Tenochtitlán, and nearly every remaining Spaniard was wounded.
7. After three months of warfare, and reinforced by ________________________ allies, the Spanish army captured the temple pyramid of the devil gods and destroyed it, burning everything in it.
8. Born in Portugal in 1480, Ferdinand Magellan was a very devout Catholic; after his request for command of a ship was denied by King Manuel of Portugal, he took service with ________________________ , the King of Spain at that time.
9. Magellan was commissioned by the King of Spain to be Captain General of an expedition to find a water route through ________________________ , then to
continue on to the East Indies from there.
10. Magellan dedicated his trip, which set sail with five ships from San Lucar, Spain in 1519, to Our Lady of ________________________ ; due to the opposition of the Spanish captains, the voyage was very difficult for Magellan.
11. The name that Magellan gave to Rio de Janeiro was Santa ________________________ Bay, in honor of the Saint whose feast day it was when he landed there on December 13, 1519. About this time, Magellan put down a third mutiny attempt.
12. The ________________________ of Magellan were so difficult to navigate, due to storms, that when Magellan reached the Southern Sea, he named it “Peaceful”— the Pacific Ocean.
13. When Magellan reached the country called the ________________________ in 1521, he accomplished the first circumnavigation of the world, since he had sailed past these same islands 9 years earlier. Due to Magellan’s good influence, the King and other natives accepted Baptism.
14. The ________________________ Islands, the original destination of Magellan’s expedition, were reached by his men in 1521, after Magellan’s unfortunate death in April. Only 108 men survived and reached these islands, although five ships had begun the voyage.

(Each Question is worth 2 points.)

Multiple Choice
Directions: After each statement below, there is a set of words or phrases. Circle the letter next to the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

1. An Aztec legend set the Aztec year 1-Reed and the day 9-Wind for the return of their hero:
a) Tenochtitlán
b) Quetzalcoatl
c) Zocotlan
d) Montezuma

2. When Cortés christened the town Villa Rica de Vera Cruz (Rich Town of the True Cross), he claimed which country in the name of Charles I of Spain?
a) Mexico
b) Cuba
c) San Salvador
d) Ecuador

3. The tribe which planned to ambush Cortés and his Spaniards were the:
a) Zocotlans
b) Cholulans
c) Tlaxcalans
d) none of the above

4. Cortés did many daring things in his conquest of the Aztecs, including:
a) taking Montezuma prisoner in his own palace
b) marching into the temple, striking and removing the idols
c) fighting Cuitlahuac when outnumbered twenty to one
d) a and b only
e) a, b and c

5. After praying for assistance from Our Lady, St. James and St. Peter, the Spanish killed the Aztec general and prevailed against the Aztecs in the critical Battle of:
a) Otumba
b) Tlaxcala
c) Tenochtitlán
d) Cholula
e) none of the above

6. Tlaxcala was the location where Cortés planned the final battle and also:
a) helped his men recover (most were wounded)
b) secured surrounding territory
c) ordered the building of ships
d) a and b only
e) a, b and c

7. In May of 1521, when Cortés began the final battle at Tenochtitlán, the Spaniards fought constantly for:
a) 36 days
b) 39 days
c) 63 days
d) 93 days
e) none of the above

8. The name of Magellan’s flagship was the:
a) Santiago
b) San Antonio
c) Trinidad
d) Victoria

9. Provisions from Spain for Magellan’s voyage were inadequate, since the ships were supplied with enough for only:
a) 6 months
b) 1 year
c) 2 years
d) 3 years
e) none of the above

10. After sailing through what seemed like endless seas, Magellan’s starving crew finally reached this land of plentiful food in March of 1521:
a) Guam
b) St. Paul Island
c) The Philippines
d) The Spice Islands

Directions: Circle the letter T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false.

1. T F Before the Spanish arrived, there were no horses in the New World.
2. T F Cortés massacred helpless, unarmed Indians in the battle with the Cholulans.
3. T F Montezuma listened attentively to, but did not understand, Cortés’ explanation of God and his invitation for Montezuma to worship the One True God.
4. T F Cortés never fully realized the dangerous position he and his men were in at Montezuma’s palace, since they were allowed to build a chapel and come and go as needed.
5. T F Montezuma removed the images of the devil gods in the temple after some hesitation, since he thought Cortés was Quetzalcoatl.
6. T F After Cortés slashed the curtain of the idols, Mass was said in the temple, which had before been dedicated to the Hummingbird Wizard and the Lord of Darkness.
7. T F Despite being outnumbered 50 to 500, Cortés’ men managed to fight their way to the top of the 114-step temple in Tenochtitlán, destroy the idol there, set fire to everything that would burn, and fight their way back down again.
8. T F After the Night of Sorrow, Cortés was discouraged, thinking that perhaps his goal of winning Mexico for Christ could not be accomplished.
9. T F Cortés’ men valued him so much that one of them gave up his own life to save Cortés from being caught and sacrificed during the assault at Tenochtitlán.
10. T F The capture of Cuauhtemoc on August 13, 1521, ended the reign of the devil gods and human sacrifice in Mexico. Spain had conquered by following the Sign of the Cross with true faith, as Cortés had said they would.
11. T F After the weather turned warm, Magellan and his men began the search for the waterway from the Atlantic to the Pacific which they called the paso.
12. T F After Magellan reached what he named Port St. Julian, the Spanish captains attempted mutiny again.
13. T F When the Victoria finally reached Spain on September 8, 1522, the spices it carried were sufficient to pay for Magellan’s entire round-the-world voyage.

Directions: This list is made up of names of persons, groups, places and things. Each one corresponds to one of the lettered phrases below. In each blank, write the letter of the phrase that correctly identifies that person, group, place or thing.

A) captain of the Santiago who helped find the paso (The Straits of Magellan)
B) Spaniard who fought Cortés in Mexico in 1520
C) time when Cortés and his men fled from Tenochtitlán under severe attack
D) Tenochtitlán—city of the devil gods; currently Mexico City
E) Hernan Cortés’ birthplace in western Spain; very dry
F) killed Aztec general at Battle of Otumba
G) Spanish captain; arrested for mutiny against Magellan and marooned at Port St. Julian
H) Aztec emperor who lost Battle of Otumba to Cortés
I) when Cortés landed in Aztec territory
J) soldier in and chronicler for Cortés’ expeditions
K) Aztec emperor who refused to surrender Tenochtitlán during a siege lasting 93 days; finally defeated by Cortés
L) Indian interpreter; warned Cortés about ambush planned by the Cholulans
M) the Spaniards’ name for Huitzilopochtli

1. ___ Estremadura
2. ___ Bernal Diaz
3. ___ Marina
4. ___ Cactus Rock
5. ___ Witchywolves
6. ___ Panfilo Narvaez
7. ___ Good Friday
8. ___ Night of Sorrow/Noche Triste
9. ___ Cuitlahuac
10. ___ Juan de Salamanca
11. ___ Cuauhtemoc
12. ___ Juan de Cartagena
13. ___ Serrano

Mini-Essay Question: How were Cortés and Magellan alike as heroes?
(Extra credit—4 points.)

Personal Opinion: Name an important or interesting fact that you learned in this chapter. How could this fact affect your life?

Supplemental Reading
Warren H. Carroll. Our Lady of Guadalupe and the Conquest of Darkness. Christendom Press.


Perfect Score: 100 Score: __________________

Directions: Complete and make each statement true and accurate by writing one or more words on each blank line.

1. After his conquest of the Aztecs, Cortés set up self-________________________ towns in which Spanish and natives were integrated.
2. In 1524, the Mission of the ________________________ put Franciscan priests in Veracruz for the first organized missionary activity in Mexico; over the next 250 years all Franciscan missionaries imitated their 200-mile barefoot walk to Mexico City.
3. The success of the Franciscan missionaries in converting so many Indians resulted largely from the doctrinal verses they taught the Indians, who loved
________________________ and pageantry.
4. From the beginning of 1524 to the end of 1525, Mexico was without Cortés, who had gone to ________________________ to personally stop a rebellion by another Spaniard.
5. Queen ________________________ , Charles I’s wife and regent, appointed the second Audiencia in March of 1530, but it did not officially take over the
government in New Spain until January 1531.
6. Since the devil can also cause apparitions, Bishop Zumárraga cautiously asked that the Lady from Heaven give a sign, so she caused Castillian
________________________ to grow on the hillside in winter.
7. The lifelike image of Our Lady of Guadalupe has remained on Juan Diego’s cactus fiber tilma since 1531, despite the fact that the cloth should have
disintegrated in ________________________ years.
8. The Indian ________________________ that were developed by the early Spanish viceroys allowed the Indians to be protected, formally educated, taught the
Catholic Faith, and to work. They formed the basis of Mexican society and have endured to this day.

(Each Question is worth 2 points.)

9. When Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and his 36 men crossed into New Mexico on false advice from the Turk, they learned much about the inland territory, helping those who came after them to form colonies in New Mexico and ________________________ .
10. Hernán De Soto and his men explored Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee before finally discovering the ________________________ River in 1541 and moving on through Oklahoma and Kansas.
11. Pizarro defeated the Incas at Cuzco, then founded ________________________ , the capital city of Peru, in January of 1535.
12. Charles V sent Cabeza de Vaca to replace Pedro Mendoza in governing the ________________________ colonies in 1541. The settlers resented his policy against enslavement of the Indians, and after his return from establishing the colony of Los Reyes, they overthrew him.
13. In acknowledgment of the fact that ________________________ had prepared the way for Our Lady of Guadalupe to come to Mexico by first ridding the land of the worship of devil gods, Bishop Zumárraga extended him an invitation to the dedication of the first church on Tepeyac Hill on December 26, 1531.
14. At 62 years old, after endowing a convent, hospital and university, and imploring his heirs to return any land unfairly gained from the Indians, Hernán Cortés died in 1547. He was later buried in ________________________ , as he had requested.

Multiple Choice
Directions: After each statement below, there is a set of words or phrases. Circle the letter next to the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

1. Cortés’ management of New Spain included the development of all of the following except:
a) land
b) slave trade of Indians
c) agriculture
d) self-governing towns

2. The hill on which Our Lady appeared to Juan Diego five miles north of Mexico City, which was once the site of an Aztec temple, was:
a) Huejotzingo
b) Veracruz
c) Tepeyac
d) none of the above

3. The first miracle of Our Lady of Guadalupe was the healing of:
a) Juan Diego
b) Juan Bernardino
c) Bishop Zumárraga
d) none of the above

4. The kind Viceroy of New Spain who would disguise himself and wander the city at night to discover abuses against the Indians was:
a) Juan Vicente de Guemes
b) Don Antonio de Mendoza
c) Don Luis Velasco
d) Bucarelil

5. In May of 1517, Panfilo Narvaez led an ill-fated expedition which resulted in several deaths and four men lost in the interior of North America. He began the expedition in:
a) Veracruz, Mexico
b) Athens, Georgia
c) Cajamarca, Peru
d) St. Petersburg, Florida
e) none of the above

6. The city of gold in New Mexico which was promised to Coronado by the Turk, but which did not actually exist, was named:
a) Cajamarca
b) Asunción
c) Quito
d) none of the above

7. The Spanish leader who took 223 mounted men and 400 foot-soldiers through Georgia and the Carolinas, discovered the Santo Espiritu and then moved on
through Oklahoma and Kansas was:
a) Francisco de Coronado
b) Hernán De Soto
c) Francisco Pizarro
d) Pedro Mendoza

8. The Spanish leader who collected a ransom of Inca gold and silver, and whose family unjustly ruled Peru through favoritism, oppression of Indians and other abuses was:
a) Francisco de Coronado
b) Hernán De Soto
c) Francisco Pizarro
d) Pedro Mendoza

9. Part of the time that Cabeza de Vaca governed Argentina was spent in an expedition from 1541-42 through a land with vampire bats and enormous ants,
during which he and his men established the colony of:
a) Los Reyes
b) Quito
c) Lima
d) Buenos Aires

10. Orellana’s men traveled down the Amazon in ships named the Victoria and the:
a) San Francisco
b) San Antonio
c) San Salvador
d) San Pedro
e) none of the above

Directions: Circle the letter T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false.

1. T F Cortés’ decision to personally put down the rebellion in Honduras was beneficial, since no one else could have done the job.
2. T F Under Guzman, the first Audiencia of New Spain denounced slavery of Indians and high taxes.
3. T F The Mother of God told Juan Diego to tell the Bishop of her desire that a church be built where she could show how much she loved the Indians.
4. T F The name of Our Lady of Guadalupe is the name Our Lady gave herself when appearing to Juan Bernardino. Guadalupe was already a famous shrine in Spain.
5. T F Upon their return to Mexico City after a seven-year journey in North America, Cabeza de Vaca and his three companions looked the same as when they had left.
6. T F Andres da Campo and the two oblates survived, although Fr. Padilla was killed, and they finally returned to Mexico City five years after Coronado and the rest of his expedition had returned.
7. T F Francisco Pizarro executed the Inca Emperor, Atahualpa, in August of 1533, because Atahualpa did not fulfill his part of the bargain made.
8. T F God brought good out of the evil the Pizarros did in Peru; the Incas were no longer slaves and could now come to worship Christ.
9. T F Santa Maria del Buen Aire, which means St. Mary of the Good Air, was the colony which was founded in 1534 by Pedro Mendoza and is now Buenos Aires.
10. T F Cabeza de Vaca was rewarded for his just treatment of the Indians and good administration of the Argentine colonies.
11. T F Orellana fulfilled the request of his brother Gonzalo Pizarro to find food and return in 12 days, then undertook the trip with 60 men to explore the territory.
12. T F Orellana befriended the Indians throughout his journey through South America, always treating them as brothers.
13. T F Pizarro’s expedition down the Amazon covered 6,000 miles of the most memorable sights.

Directions: This list is made up of names of persons, groups, places and things. Each one corresponds to one of the lettered phrases below. In each blank, write the letter of the phrase that correctly identifies that person, group, place or thing.

1. ___ Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
2. ___ Don Antonio de Mendoza
3. ___ Marañon
4. ___ Pedro Mendoza
5. ___ Fray Martín de Valencia
6. ___ Baja
7. ___ Nuño de Guzman
8. ___ Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
9. ___ Juan de Zumárraga
10. ___ Bucarelil
11. ___ Francisco de Orellana
12. ___ Don Luis Velasco

A) Captain of the 1540 expedition through New Mexico and Texas for infamous city of gold, Quivira
B) second viceroy in Mexico; revered as a father
C) sailed down the Amazon across South America for 8 1/2 months
D) unjust chairman of the first Audiencia of New Spain
E) Franciscan missionary; leader of the first expedition for missionary purposes to New Spain
F) established first Argentine colony at what is now Buenos Aires; died at sea
G) name that Orellana’s men called the Amazon River; they discovered it had tides and was so wide it looked like the sea
H) conquered Honduras; rebelled against Cortés
I) led 3 other Spaniards through Texas back to Mexico City after an absence of seven years
J) viceroy of Mexico who spent 10 hours a day at his desk to ensure work was done
K) Lower California; site of one of Cortés’ exploratory expeditions
L) first viceroy in Mexico; heard Indian grievances one day each week
M) first Bishop of Mexico City; protector of the Indians of Mexico

Mini-Essay Question: Dispute the charges leveled against Cortés (greed, aggression, (Extra credit—4 points.) destruction of native culture) by examining his achievements as noted in the text.

Personal Opinion: Name an important or interesting fact that you learned in this chapter. How could this fact affect your life?

Supplemental Reading
Warren H. Carroll. Our Lady of Guadalupe and the Conquest of Darkness. Christendom Press, Front Royal, Virginia.
Francis Johnston. The Wonder of Guadalupe. TAN.
Fr. Robert J. Fox. Saints and Heroes Speak, Vol. 4, pp. 75-93 (St. Juan Diego). Fatima Family Apostolate.

Taken from Christ and the Americas Workbook by TAN Books & Publishers, Inc.

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