of St. Francis de Sales on Prayer
from CHAPTER 1
The Goal of Prayer
Sermon for the Third Sunday of Lent, given on March 22, 1615, concerning
the usefulness and necessity of prayer, the operations of the understanding,
meditation, petitions, contemplation, and the goal of prayer.
St. Bernard -- whose memory is dear to those who have to speak on prayer --
in writing to a bishop, advised him that all that was necessary for him was
to speak well (meaning to instruct, to discourse); then to do well in giving
good example; and finally, to devote himself to prayer. And we, addressing this
to all Christians, shall dwell upon the third point, which is prayer.
First, let us remark in passing that, although we condemn certain heretics
of our time who hold that prayer is useless, we nevertheless do not hold with
other heretics that it alone suffices for our justification. We say simply that
it is so useful and necessary that without it we could not come to any good,
seeing that by means of prayer we are shown how to perform all our actions well.
I have therefore consented to the desire which urges me to speak of prayer,
even though it is not my intention to explain every aspect of it because we
learn it more by experience than by being taught. Moreover, it matters little
to know the kind of prayer. Actually, I would prefer that you never ask the
name or the kind of prayer you are experiencing because, as St. Antony says,
that prayer is imperfect in which one is aware that one is praying. Also, prayer
which one makes without knowing how one is doing it, and without reflecting
on what one is asking for, shows clearly that such a soul is very much occupied
with God and that, consequently, this prayer is excellent.
We shall treat, then, on the following four Sundays, of the final cause of
prayer; of its efficient cause; of that which properly should not be called
the "material cause," but rather the "object" of prayer;
and of the effective cause of prayer itself. For now, I shall speak only of
its final cause. But before entering
upon the subject of prayer, I must say three or four little things that
it is well to know.
Four operations pertain to our understanding: simple thought, study, meditation,
and contemplation. Simple thought occurs when we go running over a great number
of things, without any aim, as do flies that rest upon flowers, not seeking
to extract any juice from them, but resting there only because they happen upon
them. So it is with our understanding, passing from one thought to another.
Even if these thoughts be of God, if they have no aim, far from being profitable,
they are useless and detrimental and are a great obstacle to prayer.
Another operation of our understanding is study, and this takes place when
we consider things only to know them, to understand them thoroughly or to be
able to speak correctly of them, without having any other object than to fill
our memory. In this we resemble beetles which settle upon the roses for no other
end than to fill their stomachs and satiate themselves. Now, of these two operations
of our understanding we shall speak no more, because they are not to our purpose.
Let us come to meditation. To know what meditation is, it is necessary to understand
the words of King Hezekiah when the sentence of death was pronounced upon him,
which was afterward revoked on account of his repentance. "I utter shrill
cries," he said, "like a swallow," and "I moan like a dove,"
in the height of my sorrow. [Cf. Is. 38:14]. He meant to say: When the young
swallow is all alone and its mother has gone in search of the herb called "celandine"
in order to help it recover its sight, it cries, it pips, since it does not
feel its mother near and because it does not see at all. So I, having lost my
mother, which is grace, and seeing no one come to my aid, "I utter shrill
cries." But he adds, "I moan like a dove." We must know that
all birds are accustomed to open their beaks when they sing or chirp, except
the dove, who makes her little song or cooing sound whilst holding her breath
-- and it is through the movement up and down which she makes of it, without
letting it escape, that she produces her song. In like manner, meditation is
made when we fix our understanding on a mystery from which we mean to draw good
affections, for if we did not have this intention it would no longer be meditation,
but study. Meditation is made, then, to move the affections, and particularly
that of love. Indeed, meditation is the mother of the love of God and contemplation
is the daughter of the love of God.
But between meditation and contemplation there is the petition which is made
when, after having considered the goodness of Our Lord, His infinite love, His
omnipotence, we become confident enough to ask for and entreat Him to give us
what we desire. Now there are three kinds of petition, each of which is made
differently: The first is made by justice, the second is made by authority,
and the third is made by grace.
The petition which is made by justice cannot be called "prayer,"
although we use this word, because in a petition of justice we ask for a thing
which is due to us. A petition which is made by authority ought not be called
"prayer" either; for as soon as someone who has great authority over
us -- such as a parent, a lord or a master -- uses the word "please,"
we say immediately to him, "You can command," or "Your 'please'
serves as my command." But true prayer is that which is made by grace,
i.e., when we ask for something which is not due to us at all, and when we ask
it of someone who is far superior to us, as God is.
The fourth operation of our understanding is contemplation, which is nothing
other than taking delight in the goodness of Him whom we have learned to know
in meditation and whom we have leanred to love by means of this knowledge. This
delight will be our happiness in Heaven above.
We must now speak of the final cause [that is, the goal] of prayer. We ought
to know [...]
Taken from Sermons
of St. Francis de Sales on Prayer by TAN
Books & Publishers, Inc.
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